Frequent Questions

What is the Hazardous Waste Combustion NESHAP?

The Hazardous Waste Combustion Hazardous Waste Combustion National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) is a set of national standards specifically established to limit the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from combustion devices that burn hazardous waste, e.g., incinerators, cement kilns, and lightweight aggregate kilns. The Clean Air Act (CAA) lists 188 HAPs, and requires EPA to develop a list of major industrial or "source" categories — categories of plants within an industry, at least one of which emits annually 10 tons or more of any single HAP, or 25 tons or more of any combination of HAPs. 

Many hazardous waste combustors (HWCs) are major sources under the CAA and emit HAPs, such as: cadmium, lead, hydrogen chloride, mercury, chlorinated dioxin and furans, benzene, and methylene chloride. As a result, HWCs are included on EPA's source category list. The CAA further requires that EPA establish national emission standards for each major source category, and any area source category that is of particular concern. These standards are referred to as national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants, or NESHAP. The standards must require the maximum degree of emission reduction that can be achieved for each source category. The standards for hazardous waste burning incinerators, cement kilns, and lightweight aggregate kilns are found in 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart EEE.

See for general information concerning the air toxic regulations, hazardous air pollutants, the difference between major and area sources, links to the most recently published source category list, and other subjects related to the NESHAP. 

For more information, see

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