Frequent Questions

How do the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns compare to the standards EPA published in the Federal Register on June 14, 1999 for other cement kilns?

Hazardous waste burning cement kilns are subject to the same emission standards that apply to non-hazardous waste burning kilns--dioxin/furan, particulate matter, hydrocarbon -- as well as additional standards to control specific metals, total chlorine, and combustion related carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. The Agency established MACT standards for these other pollutants in part because they are currently being controlled under RCRA regulations and thus floor standards could be established. In addition, hazardous waste burning kilns emit higher levels of lead and total chlorine than other kilns. Thus, controls for these hazardous air pollutants are warranted for hazardous waste burning kilns. 

Although the Agency considered beyond-the-floor standards for non-hazardous waste burning kilns to control other hazardous air pollutants -- mercury, for example -- we concluded that the standards would not be cost-effective.
The standards for dioxin/furan, particulate matter, and (generally) hydrocarbons are the same for both types of cement kilns because hazardous waste burning does not typically affect emissions of these hazardous air pollutants. Dioxin/furan emissions are largely a function of the temperature of combustion gases in the emission control system, and particulate matter and hydrocarbon stack emissions are largely attributable to the raw material.

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