Frequent Questions

Why didn't EPA finalize stringent 'beyond-the-floor' Hazardous Waste Combustion Emission Standards based on activated carbon injection as proposed?

We determined that beyond-the-floor standards for dioxin/furan were cost-effective for waste heat boiler-equipped incinerators and lightweight aggregate kilns. The waste heat boiler incinerator standard is based on use of activated carbon injection and the lightweight aggregate kiln standard is based on rapid quench of kiln off-gas temperature to minimize dioxin/furan formation. The waste heat boiler incinerator standard and lightweight aggregate kiln standards are cost-effective at $370,000 and $25,000 per gram of TEQ removed, respectively.
Activated carbon injection is not cost-effective, however, for other incinerators and cement and lightweight aggregate kilns. We estimate the cost-effectiveness of activated carbon-based standards at $530,000 to $830,000 per gram of TEQ removed and $16 to $34 million per megagram of mercury removed for these sources.

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