Frequent Questions

What is a final corrective action remedy?

Beyond the EIs, all corrective action facilities ultimately need a more permanent, and more protective, final remedy. Generally, the owner/operator evaluates a number of potential remedies and arrives at a preferred option. EPA or the authorized State must approve of the selected remedy, however, and the public is given a chance to comment. Some common remedies include:

- Waste/soil removal to a hazardous waste landfill, incinerator, or treatment plant
- A system to pump contaminated groundwater, treat it, and then reinject it
- A cap to seal contaminants in place
- A soil vapor extraction system
- Monitoring and natural attenuation
- Bioremediation (microorganisms that break down waste, plants that draw contaminants out of the soil etc.)

A final remedy does not necessarily have to reduce hazardous contaminants to background levels—concentrations prior to waste management. The site has to meet protective, risk-based standards instead, and facilities can use a combination of remedies to meet those standards. Please see the Corrective Action Resources page for more information on remedy evaluation and selection.

Have more questions? Submit a request